By Lieng-Huang Lee (auth.), Lieng-Huang Lee (eds.)
The first ACS Adhesion Symposium used to be held in Washington, D.C., September 1971. in the course of the 4 years due to the fact that assembly, a lot curiosity in adhesion has been generated between six divisions of the yank Chemical Society. Then, in 1974, the Macromolecular Secretariat appointed me to paintings heavily with the six consultation chairmen in organizing this Symposium on technological know-how and expertise of Adhesion. remember the fact that, the luck of the Symposium which came about among April 7 and 10, 1975 in Philadelphia, Pa., is because of their first-class cooperation and the enthusiastic reaction of con tributors. As initially deliberate, every one department used to be accountable for one consultation, and lots of the papers, together with numerous overdue con tributions, are released in those volumes of lawsuits. in the course of the Symposium, we held a dinner party in honor of Professor Herman Mark in occasion of his 80th birthday. His Plenary Lecture and the Symposium tackle through Professor Murray Goodman are released in complete in the beginning of the 1st quantity. I thank Professors Mark and Goodman for his or her very good displays in this memorable occasion.
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To prevent the introduction of uncertainties in polymer concentration resulting from centrifugation, this method has been l1ludlfied 24 to permit a direct in situ analysis of the suspension. The optical density of the unshifted band of the adsorbing chromophore 25 obtained from the difference spectrum of polymer suspension and the same polymer solution can then be used to calculate the bound fraction. The extinction coefficient of the adsorbed segments at the frequency maximum of the unbound segments is determined by successive dilutions of the reference if matched cells are used, or by changing the pathlength of the reference cell.
However, the adsorbed polymer film, consisting of a mixture of polymer and solvent is not homogeneous, so it deviates from this model. The polymer concentration in the film, and hence the refractive index, would be expected to vary with distance from the surface, probably decreasing exponentially. The use of the Drude equations will result, therefore, in an "average" thickness value which will be greater than the mean square thickness. It is necessary to relate this calculated average for a homogeneous film model to the inhomogeneous adsorbed polymer film17 to deduce molecular parameters.
The description of both the microscopic and macroscopic systems requires the determination of both the conformation and changes in the conformation of the polymer molecule upon interaction with a surface. A number of theoretical and experimental techniques have been employed to characterize adsorbed polystyrene and to test the theoretical models describing the system. These include investigations of: 1) the extension of the adsorbed molecule normal to the surface by ellipsometry and viscosity studies, 2) the distribution of segments of the adsorbed molecule normal to the surface by attenuated total reflection, 3) the fraction of segments of the polymer chain attached to the surface using infrared difference spectroscopy, and 4) the rates of polymer adsorption and desorption using radiotracer techniques.
Adhesion Science and Technology by Lieng-Huang Lee (auth.), Lieng-Huang Lee (eds.)